(Pocket-lint) - Apple is moving the Mac lineup to its own-designed processors, the third time it has ushered the Mac towards a new processor line after Motorola, PowerPC and Intel. The first Apple chip has been announced as the M1.

The MacBook Air is moving completely over to Apple Silicon immediately, with versions of the Mac mini and MacBook Pro 13 also now available with the M1 chip alongside the Intel versions. 

The Apple M1 is a 5nm 8-core System-on-Chip (SoC) with 16 billion transistors and an integrated 8-core graphics processor (GPU). And, of course, the M1 is a similar Apple Silicon chip design to that we've seen in the iPhone and iPad. 

Apple

As well as processing cores these also include other technologies such as a neural processor (NPU) and memory in one package. The move to Apple Silicon will enable other technologies we've seen on the iPad and iPhone to come to the Mac, including Face ID - although there's no sign of that as yet. 

Like other phone and tablet chips, these are based on the core designs of ARM (which we've now found out is being bought by Nvidia) and are mobile processors designed with power efficiency in mind. They'll use the ARM64 architecture instead of Intel's x86/64. To ready itself for the transition - as well as work on its other chip-based technologies, Apple has been beefing up its in-house silicon design teams in recent years, not least in the UK

While the performance of mobile processors like Apple's A Series yields good performance for mobile devices powering devices like the iPad Pro, the jury is out on whether they really can power performance-orientated desktops and laptops. 

It seems Apple is unlikely to be fazed by Nvidia's acquisition of ARM since Nvidia is a long term Apple partner. Apple also reportedly turned down the chance to buy ARM itself because ARM's open licensing model doesn't fit with Apple's business plan, which makes sense. 

What's Apple's reasoning for the move to Apple Silicon?

Apple CEO Tim Cook said during the June live stream to announce the Apple Silicon initiative that "when we make bold changes, it's for one simple reason - so we can make better products". 

He's certainly right that it's a bold change. 

"From the beginning, the Mac has always embraced big changes to stay at the forefront of personal computing," said Cook. "With its powerful features and industry-leading performance, Apple silicon will make the Mac stronger and more capable than ever. I've never been more excited about the future of the Mac."

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As CCS Insight analyst Geoff Blaber says "Its motivations for doing so include reducing its dependence on Intel, maximising its silicon investment, boosting performance, and giving itself more flexibility and agility when it comes to future products."

Despite releasing improved processsors each year, Intel has struggled to make the leap to 7nm, let alone 5nm and it faces a big challenge to catch up. 

How long will the transition take? 

The transition will take two years, says Apple. But crucially, Tim Cook said at the time of the announcement in June 2020 that there were new Intel Macs in the pipeline. And, indeed, we've now seen the first of these launch with the refreshed iMac

In its original press release about the transition, Apple said: "Apple will continue to support and release new versions of macOS for Intel-based Macs for years to come and has exciting new Intel-based Macs in development. The transition to Apple silicon represents the biggest leap ever for the Mac."

We expect any further Intel Macs to be at the performance end - such as the Mac Pro and iMac Pro and we now think an M1 version of the 16-inch MacBook Pro will be available in early 2021. So there probably won't be any new Intel versions of the MacBook Pro. 

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macOS Big Sur has support for Apple Silicon ARM-based Macs as well as Intel ones. Apple says Big Sur is macOS 11 due to the design changes and ARM support; its Mac operating system has been stuck on version 10 (or X) since 2001.

Interestingly, it seems Apple will still support Thunderbolt on Apple Silicon Macs - Thunderbolt is a technology Apple-designed with Intel. Thunderbolt 3 is actually part of the incoming USB 4.0 standard that we're set to see introduced later in 2020 and indeed the M1 will support USB 4. 

However, Thunderbolt 4 has now been announced by Intel, which is natively supported by Intel's 11th generation Core processors

Apple suggested that Apple Silicon Macs will still enable you to install apps outside of the Mac App Store just as you can with an Intel Mac. With the iPad Pro and Mac coming ever closer together it seems like the ability to install your own apps could become a key difference between the iPad and Mac platforms in future. We know that the new Macs support iOS and iPad apps. Though developers will be able to veto their mobile apps appearing in the Mac AppStore as a default. 

What benefits will it bring? 

Since the A Series chips are, essentially, mobile processors, your next Mac could work more like your iPad does - it will be instant-on for starters.

Future generations could also have eSIM on board so you can add a cellular plan so it's always connected. 5G will surely come to the next iPad Pro, possibly in early 2021. There's no reason why Macs can't be 5G-connected, too, although it would require a 5G modem from Qualcomm like that in the iPhone 12 series

Apple claims Apple Silicon means "industry-leading performance per watt" which is promising as well as higher performance GPUs - but that's probably higher performance versus Intel's base level graphics offering. 

Battery life is better than previous generations - the MacBook Air can hit 18 hours, for example, and that's an immediate benefit for many. 

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"The advantages of cost, flexibility and power consumption are clear," suggests Blamber. "Embracing ARM and making hardware more consistent across the iPhone, iPad and Mac ranges is a strategic necessity." Apple will be able to add the capabilities of extra hardware - like its T2 security chip - directly onto the SoC. 

The key thing from a developer point of view is that there will be a common architecture across iOS, macOS and iPadOS making it easier to write and optimise software for the entire Apple ecosystem.

Developers will be able to make iOS and iPadOS apps available on the Mac easily. A new type - Universal 2 - of app binary will mean that apps can work across all of these as well as Intel Macs. Many apps - including all of Apple's own - will work across ARM and Intel platforms from the start. 

What are the potential pitfalls? 

The main pitfall could be in terms of Pro-level performance. Qualcomm has been producing Snapdragon chips (also based on ARM designs) for PCs for a couple of years now. While the performance of its new-generation Snapdragon 8cx platform has been shown to be decent, real-world tests of previous generation Snapdragon hardware running Windows have shown up performance deficiencies. 

Graphics will also be an area of competition between current and new generation Apple laptops - this will be especially interesting when it comes to the larger MacBook Pro with its dedicated AMD graphics. We've as yet no idea what graphics Apple might replace this with in it's 'properly Pro' models. 

Even though the Apple-designed M1 SoC (System on Chip) has graphics on board, it's not likely to match the graphics capabilities of dedicated graphics processors from Nvidia and AMD in the short term. 

Apple Silicon chief Johny Srouji suggested that the latest iPad Pro 2020 shows "how well this architecture scales to the Mac". And although developers were testing on Mac Minis running the A12Z Bionic from the iPad Pro, the new chip has the new M1 name. 

We don't believe you'll be able to Windows on Apple Silicon Macs. Because of the work Microsoft and Qualcomm have done previously it should be theoretically possible, but Boot Camp is no more. Apple has demonstrated that virtualisation means you will be able to run Linux.

Despite Apple's protestations, app compatibility will also no doubt be an issue - this is, after all, a big change for the Mac. Apple is depending on its own translation technology (Rosetta 2), so you can run existing Mac apps that have not yet been updated on ARM-based Mac systems. Apple says this includes those with plug-ins.

Adobe strongly hinted at the press briefing for its Adobe Max conference in October that it would be producing versions of its key apps for Apple Silicon Macs and that we'd hear more soon. 

"Microsoft's experience with Windows is the blueprint for the potential and the pitfalls of introducing ARM chips to PCs," continues Blaber. "But the practical reality of recompiling apps as a stepping stone will take time. Apple can make Final Cut Pro and iWork run seamlessly, but guaranteeing that a myriad of plug-ins behaves is another matter."

"Microsoft tried to force a similar move prematurely with Windows RT, although its tight collaboration with Qualcomm is now bearing fruit. Apple's vertical integration should make this an easier undertaking despite inevitable bumps along the road."

What will it mean for Macs on the market already?

Intel-based Macs will continue to work and be developed for - after all, Apple launched the expensive Mac Pro at the end of last year and has already refreshed the 13-inch MacBook Pro and 27-inch iMac in 2020. However, we expect all new consumer-orientated Macs (non-Pro, in other words) to be Apple Silicon-based by mid to late 2021. 

As we mentioned, the MacBook Pro 13 and Mac mini both have Intel options still on sale as part of the new lineup, even if they will be phased out in due course. This will be confusing for consumers and Apple will have to market it well. Microsoft has previously failed in that regard with Windows RT (Windows for ARM). 

Writing by Dan Grabham.