The television and display industry never stands still, with manufacturers introducing new technologies every year to improve their TVs and convince you that now is the time to upgrade.

Over the past few years we've seen the move from CRT to thin TVs, we've seen the rise and fall of plasma, we've witnessed the ascent of HD, Full HD and Ultra HD, we've seen dalliance with 3D and the debate around curved or flat. Joining this race is HDR, the latest technology that's among the acronym-laden features on new TVs.

HDR hit the big time in 2016, and 2017 has already thrown up more HDR formats, more HDR devices and more HDR choice. We're here to demystify the big wide world of HDR.

HDR stands for high dynamic range. The abbreviation will be familiar because it's a term also used in photography, with HDR on some cameras and many smartphones: it's a feature on the iPhone, for example.

It's the same thing, because on televisions, just as in photography, the aim is to recreate an image that's closer to that seen by the human eye, or to better recreate the vision of the original storyteller. That often means balancing out light and dark areas or the range of colours, and not losing, for example, shadow detail because of a bright sky.

When it comes to TVs, this is handled in a couple of areas. The first is contrast, dealing specifically with the relationship between light and dark, and colour, with HDR offering a wider range of colours, particularly in challenging situations like sunsets.

The results delivered by HDR should mean more sumptuous colours, bringing more realism and depth, and added "pop". HDR aims to be a visual treat, which it very much is. HDR preserves the gradation from dark to light in ways that SDR (standard dynamic range) cannot. That results in fidelity in the darkness, as well as that very bright point of light, with both being rendered with lots of detail and colour.

The "original storyteller" aspect is also important, as HDR is very much being pitched as bringing the director's vision to your TV, much like Hi-Res music claims to be bringing the artist to your ears. In the case of HDR, this could extend beyond the realistic into more radically styled visuals. In previous standards, including Blu-ray, it just wasn't possible to achieve the same results.

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HDR uses new panel technology deliver this wider colour range and contrast, and it's very much about brightness and illumination. To view HDR content, you need to have a TV that's compatible with HDR, it's as simple as that. Although HDR has been talked about for a few years, there are now a set of standards for it, aiming to ensure that you're getting some sort of parity in HDR delivery across different devices.

HDR-capable sets are suped-up televisions. Many HDR sets have a backlight system that can output about 1,000 nits peak brightness or greater, whereas standard HDTVs typically only output 100 nits, which is the level that Blu-ray and standard TV content is specified to.

Nits refers to the brightness, although this isn't used uniformly when watching HDR content - this only refers to brightness in particular places, those highlights in a scene. Using an increased brightness range and a wider colour gamut, HDR can recreate visuals that weren't previously possible.

However this isn't about absolute brightness, it's about the range, so although you'll see some LCD manufacturers talking about 1000 nit brightness, others, like OLED manufacturers, might be offering 800 nits. Because both offer the wide range, they both have that ability to carry the HDR badge.

When it comes to colour standards, HD TVs offer an 8-bit video specification known as Rec. 709, or BT.709. HDR steps up to 10- or 12-bit Rec. 2020, or BT.2020, which represents 60 times more colour combinations with smoother shade gradations. Those numbers don't really mean anything in themselves, they're just the standard defined by the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) and you'll often hear TV manufacturers saying that they conform to BT.2020, for example.

To help complicate things, HDR was initially introduced with Ultra HD (4K). HDR is included in the Ultra HD Blu-ray spec, and the UHD Alliance has created a certification called Ultra HD Premium, which confirms that a device (e.g.: TV or Blu-ray player) meets particular standards for Ultra HD and HDR.

In 2017 things have changed slightly, with Sony introducing a line of televisions that support HDR, but aren't 4K. They're designed to be smaller, so the resolution doesn't matter, but still offer that HDR punch.

Things don't stop there however. Aside from those ITU specifications for devices, there are a number of standards for HDR content that are being talked about: HDR10 and Dolby Vision are the more established technologies and HLG and and Advanced HDR by Technicolor are emerging technologies, and HDR10+ looks to turn the whole thing on its head. 

That might sound confusing, but as a "consumer" there are only a few things you really need to look out for.

HDR10 is also referred to as "generic" HDR, which is a slightly derogatory term, but HDR10 really refers to the baseline specifications for HDR content.

HDR10 is a 10-bit video stream and if you have HDR-compatible devices, it will support HDR10. This is included in the specification defined by the Blu-ray Disc Association for those Ultra HD Blu-rays we've just mentioned, and it's HDR10 support that's included in the Ultra HD Premium certification we've talked about.

One of the things that HDR10 does is tell the display the content is being viewed on how bright things should be. The aim is the carry that information from the original studio monitor through to your living room.

HDR10 is also the HDR standard that the Xbox One S and PS4 Pro offers, and with an HDR firmware update for all previous PS4 models, it's likely to be HDR10 that's the standard used for gaming too, as well as being supported on an increasing number of mobile devices.

Things can never be simple, especially not in home entertainment, so there's an alternative HDR standard and it's called Dolby Vision.

One of the things that makes Dolby Vision different is that it's designed as an end-to-end HDR process. So from capture through processing and into production, Dolby Vision is designed to preserve information that was originally captured and pass it on. It does this using metadata that's then read by the Dolby Vision decoder in the TV you're watching. The aim is to give you an HDR experience that's closer to the original by supplying more information.

It also tells the display device how bright it should be, but rather than provide one value as HDR10 does, it can do this for every frame. The idea is that it allows creators to ensure that what you're seeing is what they intended.

Support for Dolby Vision has been announced by some studios - Universal, Sony Pictures, Warner Bros and Lionsgate for example - as well as streaming services - like Vudu and Netflix - and it's also aiming to come to games and mobile applications too. Dolby Vision is now available on Amazon Video for compatible TVs in some regions too.

It can deliver 12-bit colour depth (68 billion colours) and supports backlight systems four times more powerful than standard HDR TV sets, so Dolby Vision has been designed as future-proof, surpassing the current specifications for "generic" HDR10, even if there's nothing you can currently buy that fulfils that potential.

But a Dolby Vision decoder doesn't just support Dolby Vision HDR content, it will also handle HDR10, so if you have a Dolby Vision compatible device and you're not watching Dolby Vision HDR content, there shouldn't be a problem. However, if you don't have the Dolby Vision decoder, you can't take advantage of Dolby's system.

That also applies to the Chromecast Ultra: the Google streaming dongle supports Dolby Vision, but your TV will have to support it too. The same applies to new Ultra HD Blu-ray players - if your TV doesn't support Dolby Vision, you'll be watching HDR10 instead. There's a rumour that the new Apple TV 4K will support Dolby Vision and once again, you need to have the TV to support Dolby Vision too.

Things have evolved through 2017 on the Dolby Vision front. Originally Dolby said that you needed to have a hardware decoder in your TV, but things have softened slightly, with Sony confirming updates to support Dolby Vision on TVs that previously didn't, allowing DV support as a software solution rather than hardware.

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In April 2017, Samsung announced a new open standard for HDR called HDR10+. As the name suggests, it's very much related to HDR10 that we've talked about above, but it makes a move to combat that dynamic metadata that we mentioned when talking about Dolby Vision. The HDR10+ group has grown in support with Panasonic joining and bringing some Hollywood connections with it, like major studios.

What HDR10+ does is use dynamic metadata (basically information) to tell the display how bright it should be. This is something that all HDR standards do, but as we've already discussed, HDR10 has static information, whereas Dolby Vision can set the brightness for each frame, making it more accurate. Now HDR10+ will be able to deliver metadata frame by frame if needed, or scene by scene as needed by the content, so the brightness remains accurate throughout.

Here's the business angle: Dolby Vision is a proprietary format that involves paying a license fee so the introduction of HDR10+ as an open standard is likely to be a move to introduce a comparable format that doesn't need that license. Often, that means it's popularly adopted because it's free to use. Samsung has confirmed that its 2017 QLED TVs support HDR10+ and it will be updating its 2016 SUHD TVs too and we're likely to see a lot more happening on HDR10+ through 2018.

Amazon Video partnered on the announcement confirming that HDR10+ content would be on the network later in 2017, although we're yet to see anything yet.

Finally, HDR10+ really aims to boost the performance of cheaper TVs. We've seen HDR10+ demos on mid-range HDR sets that don't have the peak brightness of flagship models and the difference between HDR10 and HDR10+ is remarkable. This is a technology to watch.

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Now we're getting into the future technologies of HDR, so we'll keep it brief. HLG stands for hybrid log gamma, which is a system for HDR being developed by the BBC and NHK. The aim of HLG is to recreate that HDR standard for broadcast, rather than streaming or via optical disc as is the case with HDR10 and Dolby Vision. Because broadcast is less consistent than those other delivery systems, the aim of HLG is to create an HDR system not dependent on metadata.

Ultimately, if HLG is adopted for broadcast, it could reproduce the HDR effect without needing special equipment to receive it or process it, which should allow a good deal of backwards compatibility, as well as being cost effective for TV production companies, as they won't have to upgrade all their equipment.

HLG is very much in the testing stages however, and if you want to know more, we have a dedicated feature for it. That said, LG is including HLG support on all its 2017 OLED TVs, and Sony has also announced that an update will bring HLG support to all 4K HDR TVs from 2016 and 2017. 

You need a HDR-compatible TV to see HDR content. Vizio, Sony, Samsung, Panasonic, PhilipsLG, TCL, Hisense, and practically every other TV manufacturer you can think of now have HDR-compatible TV sets.

Most flagship and top-tier Ultra HD (4K) televisions launched in 2016 support HDR in some form, and HDR is supported across both LCD and OLED televisions, as we've discussed. There's increased HDR support in 2017 televisions.

Samsung, LG, Philips and Panasonic offer Ultra HD Premium televisions supporting HDR10. Sony is also supporting HDR10, but has opted not to use the Ultra HD Premium badge, instead using the 4K HDR brand instead, or 4K HDR Premium for its best TVs.

As for Dolby Vision, in 2016 the only brands supporting it were LG OLED and Visio in the US. In 2017, Dolby Vision support is wider, coming to LG's LED TVs too, as well as Sony's top-tier televisions. Dolby Vision is often linked to 12-bit OLED panels, so is much more likely to be supported on OLED TVs.

There are also 2015 models that support the HDR10 standard, so if you bought a flagship or high-end 4K television in 2015, you probably have some form of HDR support.

It's important to note that although Ultra HD Blu-ray includes HDR specification, straight forward Ultra HD TV doesn't: there are a lot of 4K/Ultra HD televisions that have no HDR support, either because they are older or cheaper TVs. This isn't something that can be fixed with software either - if the panel isn't capable enough, it can't display the colours or the brightness, regardless of the resolution, until technologies like HLG become mainstream.

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Ultra HD Blu-ray is obviously one of the big avenues that's going to supply UHD and HDR content. As we've mentioned, HDR is part of the Ultra HD Blu-ray specification, so movies appearing on this new format can offer HDR - The Martian or Kingsmen, for example, offer HDR.

The first generation of Ultra HD Blu-ray players launched in 2016 came from Samsung, Panasonic and the Xbox One S. None of these players support Dolby Vision.

In 2017, Sony, Samsung and Panasonic have introduced new players, again lacking Dolby Vision support. However, the new player from LG does support the new format. None are yet on sale, but there has been confirmation that Dolby Vision discs will be on sale soon, so this HDR format is likely to take off in 2017.

Sadly, the PS4 Pro doesn't offer an Ultra HD Blu-ray player, so there will be no support for those discs in the new console, but streaming services will be supported.

YouTube announced support for HDR on 7 November 2016. That means Google's TV service is not only a source of 4K and 360-degree video, but now also HDR. This should help give HDR a lot of exposure as there will be a free source of HDR content, but again, you need to have a display that supports it.

YouTube has confirmed that Samsung's 2016 SUHD and UHD televisions will offer support, as well as the new Chromecast Ultra. This will, naturally, mean that you can plug it into any HDR-compatible display to watch YouTube content in HDR.

YouTube HDR has also recently expanded to cover various phone models, with the Samsung Galaxy S8, S8+ and Note 8 being on the list.

Netflix has announced support for HDR content and the company has said that it's supporting both Dolby Vision and normal HDR formats. It started showing this content with Marco Polo (available in Dolby Vision on LG OLED TVs), and a wide range of content has followed in HDR, like Luge Cage and Narcos. You need a television that supports both HDR and Netflix, but most recent big brand TVs support this.

HDR Netflix is available through the Xbox One S and the PS4 Pro.

Amazon announced in July 2015 that HDR content was available through its video service. It now offers episodes of its original series in HDR at no additional cost to paid Prime subscribers, such as Mozart in the Jungle or Bosch.

Again, like Netflix, you'll need a compatible television, with Amazon saying that some Samsung, Sony and LG sets are compatible. Content is labelled as HDR.

Amazon also announced in June 2016 that Dolby Vision content was available, including its original series Bosch, and available on a range of paid-for movies.

You can also access Amazon in HDR on Roku Ultra and Roku Premiere+ devices.

Vudu supports Dolby Vision as we've already mentioned, so there's support for some Vudu content in HDR using Dolby Vision. However, this is only supported on some Visio models. For more information on Vudu HDR support, see the help pages.

Chromecast is worth a mention, because if you have a TV that supports HDR, you'll be able to use the Chromecast Ultra to watch HDR content from a number of sources, including Play Movies (currently only in 4K HDR in the US), YouTube or Netflix.

Unlike other set-top boxes, Chromecast will rely on you controlling it from your phone, whereafter if should head off an collect the best quality content it can from the service you selected. However, if you have an HDR TV, you might already have a TV app for the service you're looking to cast.

Microsoft was the first off the bat with an announcement about HDR gaming, with titles like Forza Horizon 3 delivering wonderfully vibrant gaming experiences, enriched with HDR graphics. You'll need an Xbox One S to take advantage of that, and so far there have only been two HDR titles released: Forza and Gears of War 4.

PlayStation on the other hand, although a little later to announce HDR gaming, seems to be making the bigger splash. Sony announced that all PS4 models would receive a firmware update to enable HDR, as well as that being a major feature of the new PS4 Pro. Sony has also confirmed a big line-up of HDR games.

The PS4 HDR update landed in mid-September alongside the launch of the new slim PS4 model; the PS4 Pro launched on 10 November and Sony has already lined up a range of compatible HDR titles, such as Uncharted 4.

HDR gaming is likely to be hitting the big time in 2017 and we'd expect more from Microsoft's new console, X Box One X launching later in 2017.

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One fairly untapped device for viewing HDR content is the smartphone. When Samsung launched the ill-fated Galaxy Note 7, one of the features it introduced was "Mobile HDR". The Note 7 didn't survive, but the new champion for mobile HDR is the LG G6, launched in early 2017. This new flagship smartphone supports for HDR10 and Dolby Vision, the first to offer both technologies.

That's not the only device to offer HDR however. Sony's Xperia XZ PremiumSamsung's Galaxy Tab S3 and Galaxy Book, Samsung Galaxy S8 and Galaxy S8+, the Galaxy Note 8 and the LG V30 also support HDR.

In February 2017, the UHDA (Ultra HD Alliance) announced this new level certification for mobile devices. The Mobile HDR Premium badge can be awarded to those smartphones, tablets and laptops that adhere to particular technical standards. We've written a lot more about Mobile HDR in a separate feature.

Mobile HDR support is destined to come from Amazon Video, Netflix and YouTube. We're yet to see anything from Amazon, but both YouTube and Netflix are now offering live content.